Term Lists

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RCT Schema Terms

  • Secondary-study
  • Trial
  • Anchored-time
  • Interval
  • Double-anchored-interval
  • Single-anchored-interval
  • Timepoint
  • Time-range
  • Duration
  • Date
  • Exclusion-rule
  • Inclusion-rule
  • Recruitment-flowchart
  • Primary-recruitment-flowchart
  • Recruited-population
  • Randomized-population
  • Enrolled-population
  • Eligible-population
  • Screened-population
  • Excluded population
  • Analyzed population
  • Crossover population
  • Study-arm population
  • Site-enrollment
  • Protocol-concept
  • Follow-up activity
  • Protocol-change
  • Treatment-assignment
  • Protocol
  • Executed-protocol
  • Intended-protocol
  • Reason
  • Withdrawal-reason
  • Outcomes-followup
  • Secondary-study-protocol
  • Intended-secondary-study-protocol
  • Executed-secondary-study-protocol
  • Stopping-rule
  • Cost
  • Outcome
  • Baseline
  • Study-outcome
  • Primary-outcome
  • Secondary-outcome
  • Ancillary-outcome
  • Side-effect
  • Study-site
  • Trial-participant
  • Investigator
  • Study-committee
  • Funder
  • Institution
  • Blinding
  • Blinding-method
  • Intervention-step
  • Drug-step
  • Non-drug-intervention-step
  • Intervention-arm
  • Comparison-arm
  • Experimental-arm
  • Cointervention*
  • Intervention*
  • Procedure
  • Device
  • Drug
  • No-treatment
  • Placebo

Foundations of Clinical Research (Scheuermann list)

  1. Outcome assessment
    1. Morbidity
    2. mortality
    3. length of stay
    4. readmission
    5. Physical
    6. social
    7. psychological well-being
    8. Patient satisfaction
    9. patient preference
    10. self-assessment of functional capacity
    11. quality of life
  2. Acute conditions and chronic conditions
  3. Sources of knowledge
    1. Tradition (precedent)
    2. Authority (trusted expert)
    3. Trial and error
    4. Logical reasoning - Deductive reasoning, Inductive reasoning
    5. Scientific method (establishing cause and effect relationships) – a systematic, empirical, controlled and critical examination of hypothetical propositions about the associations among natural phenomena.
  4. Types of research
    1. Basic vs applied
    2. Observational [descriptive (describe populations) vs exploratory (find relationships)] vs experimental (test cause-and-effect relationships through the manipulation of variable)
    3. Case study – description of one or more patients
    4. Developmental research – description of pattern of change over time
    5. Normative research – establishing normal values
    6. Qualitative research – gathering data through interview or observation
    7. Cohort or case-control studies – establish associations
    8. Methodological studies – establish reliability and validity of a new method
    9. Secondary analysis – exploring new relationships in old data
    10. Historical research
    11. Randomized clinical trial – controlled comparison of an experimental intervention allowing the assessment of the causes of outcomes
    12. Single-subject design
    13. Sequential clinical trial
    14. Evaluation research – assessment of the success of a program or policy
    15. Quasi-experimental research
    16. Meta-analysis – statistically combining findings from several different studies to obtain a summary analysis
    17. Qualitative vs quantitative research
  5. Research process
    1. Phase I: Identify the research question
      1. Identify the research problem
      2. Review of literature to provide a theoretical framework
      3. Identify variables
      4. State hypothesis
    2. Phase II: Design the study
      1. Design the protocol
      2. Choose a sample
    3. Phase III: Methods
      1. Collect data
      2. Reduce data
    4. Phase IV: Data analysis
      1. Analyze data
      2. Interpret findings
    5. Phase V: Communication
      1. Report findings
      2. Suggest future studies
  6. Theory – a set of interrelated concepts, definitions or propositions that specifies relationships among variables a represents a systematic view of specific phenomena. A good theory should provide a thorough and rationale explanation of observed facts, and should be economical, important and fluid.
  7. Hypothesis - specific predictions based on a theory.
  8. Concepts – abstraction that allow us to classify natural phenomena and empirical observations
  9. Constructs – concepts that represent non-observable behaviors or events
  10. Variables – concepts that can be assigned values and thus must be defined operationally by the methods for measuring or evaluating them
  11. Propositions – state the relationships between variables
    1. Hierarchical – show vertical relationships
    2. Temporal – order concepts in time and states a sequence of events
    3. Quantitative – frequency or duration of a specific behavior
  12. Model – symbolic representation of the elements of a system
    1. Physical
    2. Schematic
    3. Process
    4. Statistical
  13. Inductive theory – theory based on empirically verifiable observations
  14. Hypothetical-deductive theory – theory developed on the basis of great insight and intuitive understanding with few or no prior observations
  15. Law – a theory that has reached a level of absolute consistency in outcome, thus allowing precise prediction.
  16. Empirical observations => Facts => Conceptual Framework => Theory => Research hypothesis => Facts
  17. Deduction – theory testing
  18. Induction – theory development